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Technical terms explained briefly and understandably

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0 dBFS Abbreviation for "0 dB full scale". See "Digital full scale".


a-law Audio format with low resolution especially for telephone systems / telephone systems
Acoustic brand management Acoustic brand management is an umbrella term for recognition sounds or recognition melodies that are clearly assigned to a brand or are part of a brand and are protected by trademark law.
Ambience See "Atmosphere"
APT-X APT-X is the worldwide standard for real-time studio-quality audio transmission via ISDN line. (See also "Music Taxi")
Atmo Short for "atmosphere". 
Atmosphere Atmosphere is the term used to describe recorded ambient sounds (in films, documentaries, radio plays, etc.) that are intended to form a tending to diffuse sound background.
Audio branding See "Acoustic branding".
Audio description Audio description is the transfer of what you see in a film into a text, which is then recorded by a speaker parallel to the film.
Audio guide

Audio guides are museum guides to listen to. They are usually played on portable devices that can be borrowed from museums. But they can also be played on smartphone apps, for example.
There are also audio guides that work via GPS satellite. For example, these are used as city guides. For example, if you are at a tourist attraction, you will automatically receive information about it via smartphone

Audio logo

An audio logo is an acoustic logo which serves the clear recognition, e.g. of a brand or a company. It should therefore have a high recognition effect and quickly lead to the desired associations.

Audio transcription

Autiotranscription is the transfer of the spoken word from audio and video files into a text file.






call management systems A Call Management System (CMS) is used to manage, sort and route incoming calls according to pre-defined criteria such as call purpose, desired contact person, etc.
Call Routing Systems See "Call Management Systems".
corporate song A corporate song is a unique signature tune that is usually associated with a company or brand and is protected as such. See also "Acoustic brand management".
corporate sound A corporate sound is a unique recognition sound (noises, tones, atmos etc.), which is usually associated with a company or a brand and is protected as such. See also "Acoustic brand management".


Dialogue book A dialogue book serves as a template for the lip-synchronous recordings during filming. Here, the translated text is adapted to the original text and the position of the respective vowels and consonants to the lip movements of the actor to be seen in the film. 
Dialogue Direction See "Synchronous control room".
Digital zero / Digital 0 See "Digital full scale control".
Digital full modulation

Digital full scale means the maximum volume of digital audio material that can be represented by the limited number of digital values. The value here is 0dBFS ("0 dB full scale"). Lower levels are indicated by negative values (e.g. -3db or -6dB etc.).
Values above 0dBFS produce unsightly -digital- distortions, because the waveform is radically cut off at the upper or lower end (unlike analog distortions, where the waveform is gently cut off).



EBU R-128 Standard This is a standard for limiting the maximum loudness for radio and television productions to a maximum of -23 LUFS program loudness, among other things.
The objective is to minimise the perceived differences in volume between the individual radio and television programmes.
See also "loudness".





GEMA is the abbreviation for the German society for musical performing and mechanical reproduction rights. In Germany, it administers the musical exploitation rights of authors, as well as the collection of royalties from users of these exploitation rights who are obliged to pay royalties, which are then distributed to their members according to a specific key.

GEMA free music

This means either compositions whose composer is not a GEMA member and therefore does not settle royalties via GEMA but independently, or compositions whose composer or the arranger of the composition has been dead for more than 70 years.



audio book An audio book is the (sometimes edited) book that is read to the listener.
Sound mark A sound mark consists of melodies or sounds which are protected as trademarks. See also "Corporate Sound" and "Corporate Song".
radio play A radio play is the played version and interpretation of a literary work, usually with several speakers, direct speech, sounds and music.


Infoline An Infoline contains automatic information announcements in telephone systems.
interactive voice response Abbreviation: IVR, See "Voice Dialogue System

Similar to Source Connect or Session Link Pro (SLP), ipDTL is an IP codec that runs in a web browser (primarily Chromium-based, like Google's Chrome) and is used for studio-quality audio transmissions, such as television and radio, and for voiceovers. It is a replacement for classic ISDN audio codecs, with which it is backward compatible (unlike Source Connect or SLP). It is also able to transfer video and can also be used with some mobile devices.

IP recording

IP recording is also often called Far-End Recording. It enables real-time, studio-quality audio transmission via the WebRTC standard using Voice Over IP (VoIP) over the Internet. Video transmission is also possible.

IVR Abbreviation for "Interactive Voice Response". See "Voice Dialog System".




KSK Abbreviation for Künstlersozialkasse. See "social security fund for artists".
Artists' Social Security Fund The abbreviation for Künstlersozialkasse is "KSK". By implementing the Artists' Social Insurance Act (KSVG), the Artists' Social Insurance Fund (KSK) ensures that self-employed artists and publicists enjoy similar protection under statutory social insurance as employees. It is not an independent service provider, but coordinates the payment of contributions to health, nursing care and pension insurance for its members.
Anyone who commissions freelance or independent artists (e.g. speakers) is obliged to pay a percentage of the fee charged by the artist, which changes every year, to the KSK, regardless of whether the artist himself is a member of the KSK or not.
Read more on the page of KSK ...


Loudness Loudness describes the volume of a sound signal perceived by the human ear. It is composed of the volume level, the frequency and the time course of the sound signal. By processing the audio material with compressor and EQ, the subjectively perceived loudness of the audio material is increased without increasing the physical level. 
Volume level See "Sound pressure level".
Lipsync See "lip sync".
lip sync

Lip-synchronous means that when a film is set to music in a language other than the original language, the words of the new language produce the same or similar lip movements when spoken as in the original language.
On the one hand, this is particularly important in the case of translations, where it is not a matter of reproducing the original text word for word, but rather of ensuring that the content of the text is faithful to the original (see also "Dialogue book").
On the other hand, the speaker and the dubbing director have to make sure that when speaking the new language, the words are synchronized with the lip movements. 
The goal is to make it look as if the actors in the film speak the other language.

Localization / Localization

Localisation is the linguistic and cultural adaptation of films and sound material to the local conditions of the regions or countries in which it is to be broadcast or played.

Loudness See "loudness".


Multilingual production Multilingual (plurilingual) production is the audio and film production, which is done in different languages.
Music Taxi

Musictaxi is a worldwide standard for real-time audio transmission in studio quality via ISDN line. (See also "APT-X")





Overvoice An overvoice is a voice recording that is placed over a film (e.g. a commentator, narrator or tutor).
Overvoice is often also used for foreign-language original sounds, where the original sound continues to run - at a lower volume - and the speaker speaks the translation over it. Ideally, the text of the overvoice is slightly shorter than the text of the original sound, so that the original speaker and his or her vocal character can still be heard clearly at the beginning and end.


Level Level describes a logarithmic power quantity in physics. For acoustics, see "Sound pressure level".




Reconstruction display See "True Peak Measurement".


Sound pressure level The sound pressure level describes the strength of a sound event in a logarithmic value. The unit of measurement is dB and is measured at 1kHz at a distance of one meter.
Sound level See "Sound pressure level".
Session Link Pro Session Link Pro is also often simply abbreviated "SLP". It is a German provider for real-time, studio-quality audio transmission via chromium-based web browsers such as Google Chrome.
SLP Abbreviation for "Session Link Pro"
Sound logo See "Corporate Sound"
source connect Provider of real-time, studio-quality audio transmission using chromium-based web browsers such as Google Chrome. 
Voice Dialogue System A voice dialogue system is a telephone system which uses voice answers and commands to automatically and interactively transfer callers to the right contact person, select and provide the desired information, offer the provider's services in a targeted manner and much more. It thus enters into a "dialogue" with the caller. Also called "IVR system".

Synxhron recordings are sound recordings of a film in another language, which are lip-synced so that it looks as if the actor in the film is actually speaking in the other language. See also "lip synch".

Dubbing Director See "Dubbing Director".
dubbing director When dubbing a film in another language, the dubbing director guides the dubbing actors through the plot of the film so that the acting posture, speech rhythm and lip-sync of the actors is in line with that of the acting actors. (See also "lip sync")
Synchronous translator See "Synchronous translation".
Synchronous translation Here a translation is created for a film in another language with the proviso that the lengths of the texts correspond to those of the original language. The synchronous translation is the basis for the dialog book. Very often, the synchronous translation and the dialog book are created in one step, that is, the synchronous translator is also the author of the dialog book. (See also "Dialog Book" and "Lip-Sync")


Take Take" refers to a short and delimited text, audio, or film section. Sound recording in short sections is often easier if it is to be very precise, as is the case with lip-synchronous film scoring.
Taken The process of dividing a text and/or film into short sections to be set to music so that the sound can be set more precisely to the point. See also "Take".
TC Abbreviation for Time Code. See "Time Code"
Time code

The most commonly used abbreviation is "TC". It is the time in hours, minutes, seconds and frames in the format HH:MM:SS:FF
TC is mainly used in film dubbing and film synchronization to define the entry and exit points for the respective recordings or takes with pinpoint accuracy.
The second has a different number of frames depending on the country of origin or technical origin of the film.
Some examples in frames per second (fps):

  • PAL Standard / Europe: 25 fps
  • NTSC standard / USA: 30 fps
  • motion picture: 24 fps
  • Hi Frame Rate (HFR) Movie: 48 fps
  • High Definition (HD) video: 50 fps
True Peak Measurement It is also called a "reconstruction display". It is a simulation, carried out by means of a complex algorithm, of how high the maximum level of the audio material will be after conversion as mp3, DA conversion or even processing by broadcasting companies for the transmission level. See also "Digital Full Level".




VoIP Abbreviation for "Voice over IP".
Voiceover See "Overvoice".
voice over IP This is the sound transmission via networks or the Internet. It is mainly used in telephone technology, where the transmission of the voice is not via a separate audio line, but via the Internet.
In the professional sector, the technology is used for real-time, studio-quality audio transmission. Video transmission is also possible. See also "IP Recording".









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Glossary - Technical terms - Wordvoice GmbH